Image Credits: Front Matter & Part I

Cover Photo

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Crestone Needle, 14,203′ in the Sangre de Cristo Range, Rocky Mountains, near Cretonne, Colorado, USA. Cover Photo by Luke Brigham, Permission granted. Cover Design by Jonathan P. Hersh. Permission granted.

Introduction

Dunhuang_Mogao_Ku_2013.12.31_12-30-18

Image 1. 敦煌莫高窟 [One of the cave temples at Thousand Buddha Caves (Mogao Caves) on Tun-Huang Mountain, Ganzu Province, western China]. Photo by Zhangzhugang, 31 December 2013, (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Zhangzhugang)

Attribution: “Dunhuang Mogao Ku 2013.12.31 12-30-18” by Zhangzhugang – Own work. Licensed under GFDL via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dunhuang_Mogao_Ku_2013.12.31_12-30-18.jpg#/media/File:Dunhuang_Mogao_Ku_2013.12.31_12-30-18.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

Lijiang 2009-11-22 191 copy 2

Image 2. Crepuscular Rays [sunbeams] at Lijiang’s Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, Yunnan [province, southwestern China]. Photo by Brantley Collins of China Travel International, CA, Inc. (http://www.chinatravelca.com). Permission granted on November 5, 2015. Cropped with permission.

Retrieved on November 5, 2015 from photo attached to email from Brantley Collins, Manager of China Travel International, CA, Inc and was accessed at http://www.chinatravelca.com/tag/china-travel-agency/

120px-FujiSunriseKawaguchiko2025WP-1

Image 3. Fujiyama at sunrise from across Kawaguchiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. … Photo probably by Kawaguchiko, no date given.

Attribution: “FujiSunriseKawaguchiko2025WP”. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FujiSunriseKawaguchiko2025WP.jpg#/media/File:FujiSunriseKawaguchiko2025WP.jpg, retrieved November 25, 2015

The_Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa

Image 4. Fugaku Sanjūrokkei – Kanagawa oki nami ura, “Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji – The Great Wave off Kanazawa” by Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849). Restored from color woodblock print in the Library of Congress, USA (http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/jpd.02018/).

Date of Engraving: First publication: between 1826 and 1833. This edition: Reprint by Adachi from the Shōwa period (between 1926 and 1989).

Source: Restored version of File:Great Wave off Kanagawa.jpg (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa.jpg) (rotated and cropped, dirt, stains, and smudges removed. Creases corrected. Histogram adjusted and color balanced.) From the version in the Library of Congress, USA (http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/jpd.02018/).

Attribution: “Great Wave off Kanagawa2” by Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾北斎) – Restored version of File:Great Wave off Kanagawa.jpg (rotated and cropped, dirt, stains, and smudges removed. Creases corrected. Histogram adjusted and color balanced.). Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa2.jpg#/media/File:Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa2.jpg, retrieved November 24, 2015

Chapter 1

Arunachala-live_selected03

Image 1. Mount Arunachala, Tiruvannamalai, South India. With kind permission. Photo from Arunachala-live camera (http://arunachala-live.com/). May 25, 20??) (title by author)

Name of File: Arunachala-live_selected03.jpg, retrieved November 2, 2015 from http://arunachala-live.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=12&pid=1326#top_display_media

120px-NavajoMtn

Image 2. Panoramic image of Navajo Mountain [= Naatsisʼáán] [and Lake Powell], looking southeast from Navajo Point on the Kaiparowits Plateau [USA]. Photo by G. Thomas, no date given.

Attribution: “NavajoMtn”. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NavajoMtn.jpg#/media/File:NavajoMtn.jpg, retrieved October 18, 2015

120px-San_Francisco_Peaks

Image 3. The San Francisco Peaks as viewed from Elden Mountain in Winter. [White-Shell-Sitting-tunneled-through (Christian name: San Francisco Peaks), USA]. Photo by Tyler finvold, 30 November 2006.

Attribution: “San Francisco Peaks” by Tyler finvold – Own work. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:San_Francisco_Peaks.jpg#/media/File:San_Francisco_Peaks.jpg, retrieved October 31, 2015

120px-Snowboll_Skilift,_2008

Image 4. Arizona Snowbowl ski lift [Arizona, USA]. Photo by Frederick Dennstedt (https://www.flickr.com/photos/fredcamino/), 21 December 2008.

Attribution: “Snowboll Skilift, 2008” by Frederick Dennstedt from los angeles, usa – Arizona Snowbowl ski liftUploaded by PDTillman. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snowboll_Skilift,_2008.jpg#/media/File:Snowboll_Skilift,_2008.jpg, retrieved December 17, 2015

Knob from northwest-thumb

Image 5. Gobernador Knob [Navajo = Chʼóolʼį́ʼí] (7,585 feet) on Laguna Seca Mesa in a southeasterly view from near U.S. highway 64. Natural gas wellhead facilities are visible in the right foreground [New Mexico, USA], September 2000. Permission from the author/photographer, Kevin Blake (http://www.k-state.edu/geography/kblake/).

Attribution: Kevin Blake (http://www.k-state.edu/geography/kblake/)

Black and white version was printed on page 44 in: Blake, K. S. (2001). Contested landscapes of Navajo sacred mountains. The North American Geographer, 3(1), pp. 29-62, retrieved December 20, 2015 from an original digital photo attached to an email from Kevin S. Blake, Associate Professor of Geography at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas

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Image 6. Mexican volcanoes; Popocatepetl and Ixtlacihuatl, 2010 [Mexico]. Photo by Joaquín Martinez Rosado,  (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Joaqu%C3%ADn_Mart%C3%ADnez_Rosado), 16 May 2010.

Attribution: “Volcanes DF” by Joaquín Martínez Rosado – Own work. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Volcanes_DF.JPG#/media/File:Volcanes_DF.JPG, retrieved November 1, 2015

120px-Mission_Mountains_Wilderness_-_Ducharme_Lake

Image 7. Mission Mountains, Ducharme Lake [Montana, USA]. Photo by Brent Shultz, no date given.

Attribution: “Mission Mountains Wilderness – Ducharme Lake”. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mission_Mountains_Wilderness_-_Ducharme_Lake.jpg#/media/File:Mission_Mountains_Wilderness_-_Ducharme_Lake.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-Mount_Fuji_from_mount_tanjo

Image 8. Mount Fujiyama from Mount Tanjo on a clear day in mid October [Honshu Island, Japan]. Photo by Amarpreet Singh, no date given.

Attribution: “Mount Fuji from mount tanjo”. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Fuji_from_mount_tanjo.jpg#/media/File:Mount_Fuji_from_mount_tanjo.jpg, retrieved October 18, 2015

Arunachala-live_selected14

Image 9. Mount Arunachala, Tiruvannamalai, South India. With kind permission, Photo from Arunachala-live camera (http://arunachala-live.com). June 17, 20??. (title by author)

Name of File: Arunachala-live_selected14.jpg, retrieved November 2, 2015 from http://arunachala-live.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pid=1337

80px-Aikya_Linga_in_Varanasi

Image 10. A Hindu sculpture of … Linga [= Lingam]  (with traditional flower offering) in Varanasi [Uttar Pradesh, India, but this one is in a city and not part of any mountain worship]. [Though the Lingam has symbolic meaning, this photo reminds us that the ceremony is not just an abstract, mental exercise and that the lingam is not merely a symbol — it has a physical, sensual presence and reality.] Photo by Rosarian (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Yosarian), 05 November 2007.

Attribution: “Aikya Linga in Varanasi” by Yosarian – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aikya_Linga_in_Varanasi.jpg#/media/File:Aikya_Linga_in_Varanasi.jpg, retrieved November 25, 2015

Chapter 2

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Image 1. Newfane, Vermont, October, 2001. Photo by author.

mountain-pilatus-lucerne-landscape-home-tree-horw-e1445788513765

Image 2. Mount Pilatus, near Lucerne, Switzerland. Photo by Werner Siedler (https://pixabay.com/en/users/Werni-54897/), 2013.

Source: https://pixabay.com/en/mountain-pilatus-lucerne-landscape-186640/

Attribution: CCO Public Domain

Retrieved October 25, 2015 from Pixabay at https://pixabay.com/en/mountain-pilatus-lucerne-landscape-186640/

MtKilimanjaro-e1445788565825-1024x571

Image 3. Mount Kilimanjaro [Tanzania]. Photo by Chris 73 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Chris_73), December 2006. (title edited by author)

Attribution: “Mt. Kilimanjaro 12.2006” by Chris 73 / Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mt._Kilimanjaro_12.2006.JPG#/media/File:Mt._Kilimanjaro_12.2006.JPG, retrieved November 5, 2015

Mount_Taylor_20140908_1920x1080

Image 4. A southwest view of Mount Taylor {Navajo = Tsoodził] as seen from the village of Encinal, New Mexico [USA]. Photo by Charles e xavier, 8 September 2014.

Attribution: “Mount Taylor 20140908 1920×1080” by Charles e xavier – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Taylor_20140908_1920x1080.jpg#/media/File:Mount_Taylor_20140908_1920x1080.jpg, retrieved December 23, 2015

120px-Spirit_Mountain_from_west_1

Image 5. Spirit Mountain [Avikwame Mountain] from the west, Newberry Mountains, southern Nevada [USA]. Photo by Stan Shebs (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Stan_Shebs), 8 October 2006.

Attribution: “Spirit Mountain from west 1” by Stan Shebs. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spirit_Mountain_from_west_1.jpg#/media/File:Spirit_Mountain_from_west_1.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-Greece_Mount_Olympus_(1)

Image 6. Mount Olympus [Greece]. Photo by Alina Zienowicz (Ala z) (https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedystka:Ala_z), 2004.

Attribution: “Greece Mount Olympus (1)” by Alina Zienowicz Ala z – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Greece_Mount_Olympus_(1).jpg#/media/File:Greece_Mount_Olympus_(1).jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-Matterhorn_from_Domhütte_-_2

Image 7. The Matterhorn seen from the Domhütze ([canton of] Valais), Switzerland. Photo by chip on Camptocamp.org; Derivative work by Zachary Grossen, 29 July 2011.

Source: camptocamp.org (http://www.camptocamp.org/images/290956/fr/matterhorn-depuis-domhutte)

Author: Photo: chil, on Camptocamp.org. Derivative work:  Zachary Grossen (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Zacharie_Grossen). Original version: File:Matterhorn from Domhütte – 2. jpg ((https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Matterhorn_from_Domhütte.jpg))

Attribution: “Matterhorn from Domhütte – 2” by Photo: chil, on Camptocamp.orgDerivative work:Zacharie Grossen – Camptocamp.org. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Matterhorn_from_Domh%C3%BCtte_-_2.jpg#/media/File:Matterhorn_from_Domh%C3%BCtte_-_2.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

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Image 8. [The Hindu god] Kubera. Northern India, 10th century, Sandstone, San Antonio Museum of Art [Texas, USA]. Photo by Zereshk (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Zereshk), date not given.

Attribution: “SAMA Kubera 1” by Zereshk – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SAMA_Kubera_1.jpg#/media/File:SAMA_Kubera_1.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-Cordillère_du_Kunlun

Image 9. View of Western Kunlun Shan [Shan = Mountain] from the Tibet-Xinjiang highway. Photo by Alliance française de Wuhan (http://www.wuhan.afchine.org), 16 August 2005. (title from Wikipedia article on the Kunlun Mountains at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun_Mountains)

Attribution: “Cordillère du Kunlun” by Alliance française de Wuhan – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cordill%C3%A8re_du_Kunlun.jpg#/media/File:Cordill%C3%A8re_du_Kunlun.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

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Image 10. Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks mountain range, New York State, USA. Photo taken from Mount Haystack, looking across Panther Gorge. Photo by Daniel Tripp, 8 June 2006 (original upload date). (original text: 2005-09-24)

Attribution: “Adirondacks Mount Marcy From Mount Haystack” by Daniel Tripp – Own work.. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adirondacks_Mount_Marcy_From_Mount_Haystack.JPG#/media/File:Adirondacks_Mount_Marcy_From_Mount_Haystack.JPG, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-Mount_Jomolhari_from_below_Neleyla_2009-10-10_a

Image 11. Mount Jomolhari [= Mount Chomolhari = “the bride of Kanchenjunga”] viewed from just below Neleyla pass (Jangothang side) in Bhutan. Photo by Christopher Fynn (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:CFynn), 10 October 2009.

Attribution:”Mount Jomolhari from below Neleyla 2009-10-10 a” by ©Christopher J. Fynn / Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Jomolhari_from_below_Neleyla_2009-10-10_a.jpg#/media/File:Mount_Jomolhari_from_below_Neleyla_2009-10-10_a.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

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Image 12. A low peak in the Santa Monica Mountain Range as seen from inside a car on the 405 Freeway driving north, Los Angeles, California, USA. Photo by Adelle Hersh, January, 13, 2016. Used with permission of Adelle Hersh.

Aerial_View_of_Tehran_26.11.2008_04-35-03

Image 13. Alborz [= Alburz = Elburz] Mountain range seen from Tehran [Iran]. Photo by Hansueli Krapf (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Simisa), 26 November 2008.

Attribution: “Aerial View of Tehran 26.11.2008 04-35-03” by Hansueli Krapf – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aerial_View_of_Tehran_26.11.2008_04-35-03.JPG#/media/File:Aerial_View_of_Tehran_26.11.2008_04-35-03.JPG, retrieved November 25, 2015

Chapter 3

Spirit Mountain Wilderness Fact Sheet Web Opt

Image 1. Avakwame Mountain (Spirit Mountain), western shore of Lake Mohave, USA. Photo from the United States Bureau of Land Management, Southern Nevada District Office, no photographer given, no date given. (title by author)

Attribution: United States Bureau of Land Management, Southern Nevada District Office website.

Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/nv/field_offices/las_vegas_field_office/wilderness/wilderness_fact_sheet.Par.24252.File.dat/Spirit%20Mountain%20Wilderness%20Fact%20Sheet%20Web%20Opt.pdf

120px-Popocatepetl_pasodecortez_cut

Image 2. Popocatepetl with fumarole [the hole in the volcano], view from Paso de Cortés [Mexico]. Photo by Cvmontuy, 15 February 2012

Attribution: “Popocatepetl pasodecortez cut” by Cvmontuy – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Popocatepetl_pasodecortez_cut.JPG#/media/File:Popocatepetl_pasodecortez_cut.JPG, retrieved October 25, 2015

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Image 3. Cerro Pinto [= Pinto Hill] – Serrania del Perija [= Sierra de Perijá], Venezuela. Photo by F3m4nd0 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:F3rn4nd0), December 2006.

Attribution: “Serrania del Perija – Cerro Pintao” by –F3rn4nd0 06:17, 27 March 2007 (UTC) – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Serrania_del_Perija_-_Cerro_Pintao.jpg#/media/File:Serrania_del_Perija_-_Cerro_Pintao.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-MtZion_from_Abu_Tor

Image 4. Mt. Zion, a view from Abu Tor [a neighborhood in Jerusalem, Israel].  Photo by Eman (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Eman/Hebron), 29 September 2011.

Attribution: “MtZion from Abu Tor” by Eman – Own work. Licensed under CC0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MtZion_from_Abu_Tor.jpg#/media/File:MtZion_from_Abu_Tor.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

120px-Mount_Emei_pic_4

Image 5. The Mount Emei [= Mount Omei, Sichuan Province, China]. Photo by pookieevans (https://www.flickr.com/people/pookieevans/), 22 June 2007.

Attribution: “Mount Emei pic 4” by pookieevans – http://www.flickr.com/photos/pookieevans/849762891/. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Emei_pic_4.jpg#/media/File:Mount_Emei_pic_4.jpg, retrieved October 25, 2015

Mount_Papandayan_and_Mount_Kendeng_from_Cisurupan

Image 6. Mount Papandayan (left, 2622 m) and to the north is Mount Kendeng (right, 2608 m) [= Artja Domas Mountains?], viewed from Cisurupan on eastern foot of the volcano. Located southwest of Garut city in Garut Regency, West Java, Indonesia. Photo by Gunawan Kartapranata (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Gunkarta), 8 April 2014.

Attribution: “Mount Papandayan and Mount Kendeng from Cisurupan” by Gunawan Kartapranata – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mount_Papandayan_and_Mount_Kendeng_from_Cisurupan.JPG#/media/File:Mount_Papandayan_and_Mount_Kendeng_from_Cisurupan.JPG, retrieved November 2, 2015

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Image 7. Hesperus Mountain [Navajo =Dibé Ntsaa, the sacred mountain of the North] as seen from the north while on approach to the Sharks-tooth trailhead [Colorado, USA]. Photo by Jhodlof, 13 September 2008.

Attribution: “Hesperus” by Jhodlof – Template:Own, I captured this image in September of 2008.. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hesperus.jpg#/media/File:Hesperus.jpg, retrieved December 23, 2015

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Image 8. View of Western Kunlun Shan [Shan = Mountain] from the Tibet-Xinjiang highway. Photo by Nick Kent-Basham, July 2004 while on a geological expedition from UC Davis.

Attribution: “Kunlun IMG 0541” by Photo taken by Nick Kent-Basham – en. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kunlun_IMG_0541.jpg#/media/File:Kunlun_IMG_0541.jpg, retrieved November 2, 2015

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Image 9. Mount Arunachala, Tiruvannamalai, South India. With kind permission of the Arunachala-live camera (http://arunachala-live.com). February 17, 201?). (title by author)

Name of File: Girivalam-innerpath60.jpg, retrieved November 2, 2015 from http://www.arunachala-live.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pid=314

120px-Lockett_Meadow,_1996

Image 10. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Lockett Meadow in the San Francisco Peaks of Coconino National Forest, Arizona [USA] in October 1996. Photo by John from tucson az (https://www.flickr.com/people/55849279@N00), October 1996.

Source: Lockett Meadow, Oct 96 (https://www.flickr.com/photos/55849279@N00/2730076129/)

Uploaded by: PDTillman (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Tillman)

Attribution: “Lockett Meadow, 1996” by John from tucson az – Lockett Meadow, Oct 96Uploaded by PDTillman. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lockett_Meadow,_1996.jpg#/media/File:Lockett_Meadow,_1996.jpg, retrieved December 24, 2015

120px-Duck-Rabbit_illusion

Image 11. Rabbit-Duck illusion. From J. Jastrow, “The Mind’s Eye,” Popular Science Monthly, 54, pp. 299-312.

Attribution: “Duck-Rabbit illusion”. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Duck-Rabbit_illusion.jpg#/media/File:Duck-Rabbit_illusion.jpg, retrieved November 7, 2015

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Image 12. An illustration of the Hindu significance of Mount Kailash, depicting the holy family: Shiva and Pārvatī, cradling Skanda with Ganesha by Shiva’s side, 18th century, provenance unknown. Photographer not given, 27 July 2007. (title constructed by author)

Attribution: “Hindukailash”. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hindukailash.JPG#/media/File:Hindukailash.JPG, retrieved November 2, 2015

Getty-thumb

Image 13. The Pacific Ocean (left) and a piece of the Santa Monica Mountain Range as seen from the John Paul Getty Museum which is, itself, on one of the Santa Monica Mountains — on a sunny day, with a calm sea. No sign here of any conflict between Mountain, Sea, and Society in Los Angeles, California, USA on January 12, 2016. Photo by author.

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The Mountain Archetype Copyright © 1988 by Thomas R. Hersh. All Rights Reserved.

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